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What are infectious diseases? – Causes, Symptoms, Risk

 

Infectious Disease can be caused by various pathogens like bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi. These pathogens may cause illness or disease. In humans, the transmission of these pathogens occur in many different ways: spread from direct contact of person to person, through water, food, air, and through insects also. The spread of infectious disease through the air is due to the aerosolization of infected particles in the environment. 

The illness, symptoms, and treatment of infectious disease directly depend on the host and pathogen. Infectious Disease Detection also depends on the time taken by the pathogen in showing symptoms in the human body. Many medical technologies help in the early detection of infectious diseases which helps in preventing further spread in the community. 

Who are at high risk of getting infectious diseases?

There is no specific categorization of having an infectious disease, anyone can get an infectious disease if they come in contact with these pathogens. But the individuals with a compromised immune system have a greater risk of having symptoms of these infectious diseases. 

  • Individuals with weaker or suppressed immune systems, such as those people who are going through cancer treatment or who have recently gone through an organ transplant surgery.
  • Individuals who had no vaccine against common infectious diseases are also at high risk. 
  • Doctors, Nurses, Hospital Staff- Healthcare Workers are at higher risk.
  • Individuals traveling to the area that is exposed to pathogen carrying mosquitoes are more prone to these problems.

How common are these infectious diseases?

The spread of these infectious diseases is extremely common globally. Some infections are very often compared to others like dengue, influenza. For instance, in the U.S, 1 out of every 5 individuals got infected with the influenza virus every year. Millions of people get infected with these pathogens every year globally. 

Complications associated with these infectious diseases. 

Complications can be of various levels, they can range from mild to very severe. In some diseases, complications may include wheezing, extreme fatigue, or skin rash. Mild infections and complications usually disappear within a few days or weeks but the people who got severe infections may lead to getting very harmful complications like Hepatitis B or C, Human Papillomavirus, and many more. 

Symptoms of infectious diseases?

Symptoms of infectious diseases are particularly according to the type of disease or infection. For instance, the most common symptoms of influenza are-

  • Severe Fever
  • Chills
  • Headaches
  • Congestion
  • Muscle aches
  • Fatigue

Similarly, other infectious diseases like Shigella cause many serious symptoms like-

  • Bloody Diarrhea
  • Vomiting
  • Dehydration
  • Fever
  • Shock

As there are many infectious diseases, so the symptoms of every disease based on the type of organism and site of infection are also responsible. 

Among the various pathogens, viruses target precise cells. These mostly include genitals or the upper respiratory tract. For example, rabies virus attacks the nervous system, warts caused by the virus affects the skin, flu virus results in runny rose, upset stomach, or pain in muscles. 

Unlikely, when you got a bacterial infection, then you will suffer from swelling, fever, redness, and pain at the place of infection. 

In the fungal description, rashes on the skin are the most common symptom.

If you found that symptoms are increasing and getting worse then you need to visit the doctor urgently. The doctor will undergo various tests to diagnose your problem. As the innovation of early detection of infectious disease helps in diagnosing infection properly for further treatment. 

What causes these infectious diseases?

Infectious diseases in the human community are caused by the invading of microorganism in the body-

  • Viruses invade and multiply inside healthy cells. 
  • Bacteria are small single-celled organisms that cause disease by attacking a specific part or area.
  • Fungi have many variations that cause fungus infection on the skin or other internal body parts. 
  • Parasites live inside the body of the host and cause sickness internally. 

The infectious disease spread in many different ways. In some cases, direct contact with an infected individual through the skin or touching. Contact with body fluids like blood, saliva also results in the spread of infectious disease.

Airborne infections spread when infected person coughs or sneezes and the droplets float in the air for a while and then inhaled by a healthy person while breathing. 

For preventing these infectious diseases or you can say to control the extreme spread, medical technologies are working hard for researching methods for early detection of these infectious diseases. Automated Molecular Diagnostic Laboratory is one of the successful inventions for the quick and efficient detection of infectious disease. Equipment like BD Max ™ System, Compact XL, NeuMoDxTM helps in performing nucleic acid tests and RNA- DNA Based tests efficiently. 

 

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